Sonochemical reaction engineering

Gandhi, K. S. ; Kumar, R. (1994) Sonochemical reaction engineering Sadhana (Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences), 19 (6). pp. 1055-1076. ISSN 0256-2499

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Ultrasound has been widely used by chemists to enhance yields as well as rates of homogeneous as well as heterogeneous chemical reactions. The effect of ultrasound on the course of chemical reactions is mediated through cavitation bubbles it generates. High temperatures and pressures are attained inside the cavitating bubbles when they collapse. The extreme conditions so generated lead to the formation of reactive intermediates, e.g., free radiacls, inside the bubbles, which cause chemical reactions to occur when they enter the surrounding liquid. This is the mechanism through which ultrasound influences the path of homogeneous reactions. The cavitation bubbles collapse asymmetrically in the vicinity of solids, e.g., catalyst particles. Asymmetric collapse lead to formation of high speed microjets. The microjets can enhance transport rates, the increase surface area through pitting as well as particle fragmentation through collisions. Both can alter the rates of heterogeneous reaction rates. It however appears that these effects do not exhaust the scope of the influence of ultrasound on heterogeneous reactions. Modelling and quantitative prediction of the effect of ultrasound on chemical reactions is however at a stage of infancy as the phenomena are complex. Only a few examples of modelling exist in literature. Apart from this, reactor design and scaleup pose significant problems. Thus sonochemical reaction engineering offers large scope for research and development efforts.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to Indian Academy of Sciences.
Keywords:Sonochemistry; Ultrasound; Cavitation; Sonolysis; Sonoreactors
ID Code:11533
Deposited On:16 Nov 2010 13:50
Last Modified:16 May 2016 20:59

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