System Nd-Pd-O: phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of oxides using a solid-state cell with advanced features

Jacob, K. T. ; Uda, T. ; Waseda, Y. ; Okabe, T. H. (1999) System Nd-Pd-O: phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of oxides using a solid-state cell with advanced features Journal of Phase Equilibria, 20 (6). pp. 553-564. ISSN 1054-9714

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An isothermal section of the phase diagram for the system Nd-Pd-O at 1350 K has been established by equilibration of samples representing 13 different compositions and phase identification after quenching by optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive analysis of x-rays. The binary oxides PdO and NdO were not stable at 1350 K. Two ternary oxides Nd4PdO7 and Nd2Pd2O5 were identified. Solid and liquid alloys, as well as the intermetallics NdPd3 and NdPd5, were found to be in equilibrium with Nd2O3. Based on the phase relations, three solidstate cells were designed to measure the Gibbs energies of formation of PdO and the two ternary oxides. An advanced version of the solid-state cell incorporating a buffer electrode was used for high-temperature thermodynamic measurements. The function of the buffer electrode, placed between reference and working electrodes, was to absorb the electrochemical flux of the mobile species through the solid electrolyte caused by trace electronic conductivity. The buffer electrode prevented polarization of the measuring electrode and ensured accurate data. Yttria-stabilized zirconia was used as the solid electrolyte and pure oxygen gas at a pressure of 0.1 MP a as the reference electrode. Electromotive force measurements, conducted from 950 to 1425 K, indicated the presence of a third ternary oxide Nd2PdO4, stable below 1135 (±10) K. Additional cells were designed to study this compound. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of PdO (†f G0) was measured from 775 to 1125 Kusing two separate cell designs against the primary reference standard for oxygen chemical potential. Based on the thermodynamic information, chemical potential diagrams for the system Nd-Pd-O were also developed.

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