Modulation of phospholipase A2 activity generated by molecular evolution

Betzel, C. ; Genov, N. ; Rajashankar, K. R. ; Singh, T. P. (1999) Modulation of phospholipase A2 activity generated by molecular evolution Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 56 (5-6). pp. 384-397. ISSN 1420-682X

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Snake venom oligomeric neurotoxins offer several unique examples of modulation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity generated by molecular evolution. This phenomenon was found in evolutionary younger snakes and is probably common for representatives of the genus Vipera. At present, the best-studied example is the heterodimeric neurotoxin vipoxin from the venom of the southeast European snake Vipera ammodytes meridionalis. It is a complex between a basic strongly toxic PLA2 and an acidic and catalytically inactive PLA2-like component (Inh). This is the first reported example of a high degree of structural homology (62%) between an enzyme and its natural protein inhibitor. The inhibitor is a product of the divergent evolution of the unstable PLA2 in order to stabilize it and to preserve the pharmacological activity/toxicity for a long time. Inh reduces both the catalytic activity and toxicity of PLA2. Vipoxin also illustrates evolution of the catalytic into a inhibitory function. Vipoxin analogues have been found in the venom of viperid snakes inhabiting diverse regions of the world. An attempt is made to explain modulation of the toxic function by the three-dimensional structure of vipoxin.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to Springer.
Keywords:Phospholipase A2; Molecular Evolution; Inhibitor; Pharmacological Sites; Enzyme Activity; Enzyme Toxicity
ID Code:49106
Deposited On:18 Jul 2011 13:59
Last Modified:18 Jul 2011 13:59

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