Gauge-invariant reference section and geometric phase

Pati, A. K. (1999) Gauge-invariant reference section and geometric phase Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, 28 (7). pp. 2087-2094. ISSN 0305-4470

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We use a gauge-invariant 'reference section' and define the geometric phase for all quantum evolutions in a closed form. This geometric phase is obtained by integrating the inner product of the 'reference section' and its path derivative along the evolution curve which is valid for non-cyclic, non-unitary and non-Schrodinger evolutions of quantum systems. Two non-trivial examples are studied to realize our new expression.

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