Potentiating effects of MPL on DSPC bearing cationic liposomes promote recombinant GP63 vaccine efficacy: high immunogenicity and protection

Mazumder, Saumyabrata ; Maji, Mithun ; Ali, Nahid (2011) Potentiating effects of MPL on DSPC bearing cationic liposomes promote recombinant GP63 vaccine efficacy: high immunogenicity and protection PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5 (12). Article ID e1429, 13 pages. ISSN 1935-2735

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Official URL: http://www.plosntds.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.13...

Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001429


Background: Vaccines that activate strong specific Th1-predominant immune responses are critically needed for many intracellular pathogens, including Leishmania. The requirement for sustained and efficient vaccination against leishmaniasis is to formulate the best combination of immunopotentiating adjuvant with the stable antigen (Ag) delivery system. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an immunomodulator on liposomal Ag through subcutaneous (s.c.) route of immunization, and its usefulness during prime/boost against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in BALB/c mice. Methodology/Principal Findings: Towards this goal, we formulated recombinant GP63 (rGP63)-based vaccines either with monophosphoryl lipid A-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-TDM) or entrapped within cationic liposomes or both. Combinatorial administration of liposomes with MPL-TDM during prime confers activation of dendritic cells, and induces an early robust T cell response. To investigate whether the combined formulation is required for optimum immune response during boost as well, we chose to evaluate the vaccine efficacy in mice primed with combined adjuvant system followed by boosting with either rGP63 alone, in association with MPL-TDM, liposomes or both. We provide evidences that the presence of either liposomal rGP63 or combined formulations during boost is necessary for effective Th1 immune responses (IFN-γ, IL-12, NO) before challenge infection. However, boosting with MPL-TDM in conjugation with liposomal rGP63 resulted in a greater number of IFN-γ producing effector T cells, significantly higher levels of splenocyte proliferation, and Th1 responses compared to mice boosted with liposomal rGP63, after virulent Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) challenge. Moreover, combined formulations offered superior protection against intracellular amastigote replication in macrophages in vitro, and hepatic and splenic parasite load in vivo. Conclusion: Our results define the immunopotentiating effect of MPL-TDM on protein Ag encapsulated in a controlled release system against experimental VL.

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