Bi-domain protein tyrosine phosphatases reveal an evolutionary adaptation to optimize signal transduction

Ahuja, Lalima Gagan ; Gopal, Balasubramanian (2014) Bi-domain protein tyrosine phosphatases reveal an evolutionary adaptation to optimize signal transduction Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 20 (14). pp. 2141-2159. ISSN 1523-0864

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Significance: The bi-domain protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) exemplify functional evolution in signaling proteins for optimal spatiotemporal signal transduction. Bi-domain PTPs are products of gene duplication. The catalytic activity, however, is often localized to one PTP domain. The inactive PTP domain adopts multiple functional roles. These include modulation of catalytic activity, substrate specificity, and stability of the bi-domain enzyme. In some cases, the inactive PTP domain is a receptor for redox stimuli. Since multiple bi-domain PTPs are concurrently active in related cellular pathways, a stringent regulatory mechanism and selective cross-talk is essential to ensure fidelity in signal transduction. Recent Advances: The inactive PTP domain is an activator for the catalytic PTP domain in some cases, whereas it reduces catalytic activity in other bi-domain PTPs. The relative orientation of the two domains provides a conformational rationale for this regulatory mechanism. Recent structural and biochemical data reveal that these PTP domains participate in substrate recruitment. The inactive PTP domain has also been demonstrated to undergo substantial conformational rearrangement and oligomerization under oxidative stress. Critical Issues and Future Directions: The role of the inactive PTP domain in coupling environmental stimuli with catalytic activity needs to be further examined. Another aspect that merits attention is the role of this domain in substrate recruitment. These aspects have been poorly characterized in vivo. These lacunae currently restrict our understanding of neo-functionalization of the inactive PTP domain in the bi-domain enzyme. It appears likely that more data from these research themes could form the basis for understanding the fidelity in intracellular signal transduction.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to Mary Ann Liebert.
ID Code:98250
Deposited On:07 May 2014 11:44
Last Modified:07 May 2014 11:44

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