Semi-annual modulation of earth's magnetic field in the equatorial electrojet region

Bhargava, B. N. ; Rao, D. R. K. ; Arora, B. R. (1973) Semi-annual modulation of earth's magnetic field in the equatorial electrojet region Planetary and Space Science, 21 (7). pp. 1251-1255. ISSN 0032-0633

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Autospectra in the 2-13 month range, computed from mean monthly horizontal intensity on quiet days at Trivandrum, situated close to the dip equator, suggest an exceedingly large semi-annual modulation of the field confined to an interval of about 5 hr centred at 1000 LT. The amplitude of the semi-annual oscillation at this station, derived from power density, is greater than 19ϒ at 1000 LT. Between 1900 and 0500 LT, spectral lines, corresponding to a period of six months, are not observed above the continuum. Spectral densities from observations at two other electrojet stations in India, Kodaikanal and Annamalainagar, and at Alibag, outside the electrojet, establish the existence of an appreciable enhancement of the semi-annual oscillation of the field in the equatorial electrojet belt. Similar computations of spectra using observations on all days, however, suggest a secondary component in the evening sector. This component is not enhanced in the equatorial electrojet belt. It is concluded that while in low latitudes the daytime component is largely associated with the modulation of Sq currents, in the electrojet belt it appears to be due entirely to a semi-annual modulation of the equatorial electrojet. It is also concluded that the secondary component, observed in the evening sector in low latitude and equatorial stations, is associated purely with the modulation of the ring current by disturbance. The two components of the semi-annual variation observed at the Indian stations have also been noticed at several stations between geomagnetic latitudes N54.6° and S41.8°. It is also observed that the association of the semi-annual component with geomagnetic latitude is confined to the evening-night component.

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