Correlations between structure and thermodynamic properties of spinels and their applications in technology

Jacob, K. T. (1979) Correlations between structure and thermodynamic properties of spinels and their applications in technology Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 32 . pp. 470-484. ISSN 0019-493X

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Measurements a/the Gibbs' energy enthalpy and entrupy vffarmation oj chromites, vanadites and alumlnat.:s 0/ F", Ni. Co'. Mn, Zn Mg and Cd, using solid oxide galvanic cells over a ternperature range extending approximately lOOO°C, have shown that the '~'Ilir"!,,, J'JrIl/iJ~ tion 0/ cubic 2-3 oxide spinel phases (MX!O,), from component oxide (MO) with rock-salt and X.Os whir c(1f'l/!ldwn st!'llt'lw,·. call b,' represented by a semi-empirical correlalion, ~S~ = --LiS + L'i,SM +~S~:"d(±O.3) cal.deg-1 mol-1 where /',.SM Is the entropy 0/calian mixing oillhe tetrahedral alld octahedral sites o/the spinel and Sr:~ is tlie enfropy associaf,'d Wifh Ih,' randomization a/the lahn-Telier distortions. A review a/the methods/or evaluating the cation distriblltion lfl spille!s suggeJ{j' l/r,l! Ihe most promising scheme is based Oil octahedral site preference energies from the crystal field theory for the Iral1silioll IIIl'f"! IlIIL';. For I/""-Irallsifioll melal cal ions site preference energies are derived relative /0 thol'lt fLI, [ransilion metal ions from measured high tClllP('ftJi ure Cal iUlI disll iiJuriol1 in spine! phases thar contail! one IransilioJl metal and another non-transition metal carion. For 2-3 srinds compulatiorrs b,IS"J Oil i.!c[J;' Temkin mixing on each catioll subialtice predici JistributionJ that are In fair agreement with X-ray and 1I1'IIIrOll ditTraction, /IIdg""!ic dll.! electrical propcrries, and spectroscopic measurements. In 2-4 spineis mixing vI ions do not foliow strictly ideal slllIistli:al Jaws, Th,' OIl/up) associated with the randomizalion 0/the Jllhn-Teller dislOriioll" appear to be significant, only ill spinels witll 3d'. 3d', 3d' (ifld~UI' iOtls in tetrahedral and 3d' and 3d9 ions in octahedral positions. Application 0/this structural model for predicting the thermodynamic proputies ofspinel solid .,olutiofl5 or,' illustrated. F,lr complex systems additional contributions arising from strain fields, redox equilibria and off-center ions have to be qllalllififti. The entropy correlation for spinels provides a method for evaluating structure tran:.jormafiofl entropies in silllple o.\id.-s, ["founlllion on the relative stabilities ofoxides in different crystallCtructures is USe/III for computer ea/culaliof! a/phase dfugrullls ofIlIrer,',,1 III (N.lll1ie5 by method, similar to thost: used by Kaufman and Bernstein for refractory alloy systems. Examples oftechnoiogical appliCation tnclude the predictioll ofdeoxidation equilibria in Fe-Mn-AI-O s),slelll at 1600°C duj ,'Ulllpltfalion 0/phase relutions in Fe-Ni-Cr-S system,

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