A 45,000-M(r) glycoprotein in the Sendai virus envelope triggers virus-cell fusion

Kumar, M. ; Hassan, M. Q. ; Tyagi, S. K. ; Sarkar, D. P. (1997) A 45,000-M(r) glycoprotein in the Sendai virus envelope triggers virus-cell fusion Journal of Virology, 71 (9). pp. 6398-6406. ISSN 0022-538X

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Official URL: http://jvi.asm.org/content/71/9/6398.abstract


Sendai virus envelopes devoid of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase but containing the fusion protein (F-virosomes) were prepared. F-virosomes exhibited discernible serine protease activity at neutral pH. Electrophoretic analysis of the protein profile of the F-virosomes under nonreducing conditions, by both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing, led to the identification of a previously unknown glycoprotein with a relative molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) associated with the F protein. The identity of the 45K protein, as distinct from F protein, was established by Western blot analysis with F- and 45K-specific antibodies. This 45K protein forms a nexus with the F protein through noncovalent hydrophobic interactions, as proved by its sensitivity to urea treatment, and it is essential for the proteolytic activity of the F-virosomes as well as for the fusion of the viral envelope with host cell membrane. N-terminal sequence analysis (first 11 amino acids) of this protein showed strong homology (> 90%) to flavivirus NS3 serine proteases but no similarity to any of the Sendai viral proteins. On the basis of the N-terminal sequence, oligonucleotides were designed corresponding to the sense and antisense DNA sequences. Dot blot hybridization and primer extension with these oligonucleotides with the viral and the host genome confirmed the host origin of this protein. Further, the limited proteolytic digestion of the target membrane resulted in significant inhibition of viral fusion with it. On the basis of these results, we postulate a model for the molecular mechanism of F protein-induced membrane fusion, which may provide a rationale for other paramyxoviruses.

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