Virus entry paradigms

Kalia, Manjula ; Jameel, Shahid (2011) Virus entry paradigms Amino Acids, 41 (5). pp. 1147-1157. ISSN 0939-4451

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Viruses, despite being relatively simple in structure and composition, have evolved to exploit complex cellular processes for their replication in the host cell. After binding to their specific receptor on the cell surface, viruses (or viral genomes) have to enter cells to initiate a productive infection. Though the entry processes of many enveloped viruses is well understood, that of most non-enveloped viruses still remains unresolved. Recent studies have shown that compared to direct fusion at the plasma membrane, endocytosis is more often the preferred means of entry into the target cell. Receptor-mediated endocytic pathways such as the dynamin-dependent clathrin and caveolar pathways are well characterized as viral entry portals. However, many viruses are able to utilize multiple uptake pathways. Fluid phase uptake, though relatively non-specific in terms of its cargo, potentially aids viral infection by its ability to intersect with the endocytic pathway. In fact, many viruses despite using specialized pathways for entry are still able to generate productive infection via fluid phase uptake. Macropinocytosis, a major fluid uptake pathway found in epithelial cells and fibroblasts, is stimulated by growth factor receptors. Many viruses can induce these signaling cascades in cells leading to macropinocytosis. Though endocytic trafficking is utilized by both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, key differences lie in the way membranes are traversed to deposit the viral genome at its site of replication. This review will discuss recent developments in the rapidly evolving field of viral entry.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to Springer.
Keywords:Enveloped Virus; Non-enveloped Virus; Endocytosis; Membrane Fusion; Signaling
ID Code:81923
Deposited On:08 Feb 2012 15:30
Last Modified:08 Feb 2012 15:30

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