spacer-arm modulated gene delivery efficacy of novel cationic glycolipids: design, synthesis, and in vitro transfection biology

Mahidhar, Yenugonda Venkata ; Rajesh, Mukthavaram ; Chaudhuri, Arabinda (2004) spacer-arm modulated gene delivery efficacy of novel cationic glycolipids: design, synthesis, and in vitro transfection biology Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 47 (16). pp. 3938-3948. ISSN 0022-2623

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Design, syntheses and relative in vitro gene delivery efficacies of six novel cationic glycolipids 1-6 containing open-form galactosyl units in CHO, COS-1, MCF-7 and A549 cells are described. The results of the present structure-activity investigation convincingly demonstrate that the in vitro gene delivery efficacies of galactosylated cationic glycolipids are strikingly dependent on the absence of a spacer-arm between the open-form galactose and the positively charged nitrogen atom in their headgroup region. While the cationic glycolipids 1-3 with no headgroup spacer unit between the positively charged nitrogen and galactose showed high in vitro gene transfer efficacies in all four cells (lipids 1 and 2 with myristyl and palmityl tails, respectively, being the most efficacious), lipids 4-6 with five-carbon spacer units between the quaternized nitrogen and galactose heads were essentially transfection incompetent. The transfection inhibiting role of the five-carbon spacer unit in the headgroup region of the present novel class of cationic lipids was demonstrated by both β-galactosidase reporter gene expression and histochemical X-gal staining assays. Results of MTT assay-based cell viability measurements in representative MCF7 cells show that cell viabilities of lipoplexes (lipid:DNA complexes) prepared from all the lipids 1-6 are remarkably high. Thus, possibilities of differential cellular cytotoxicities playing any key role behind the strikingly contrasting transfection properties of lipids 1-3 with no spacer and lipids 4-6 with a spacer unit in the headgroup regions was ruled out. Electrophoresis gel patterns in DNase I sensitivity assays are consistent with more free DNA (accessible to DNase I) being present in lipoplexes of lipids 4-6 than in lipoplexes of lipids 1-3. Thus, the results of our DNase I protection experiments support the notion that enhanced degradation of DNA associated with lipoplexes of lipids 4-6 may play an important role in abolishing their in vitro gene transfer efficacies.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to American Chemical Society.
ID Code:7978
Deposited On:25 Oct 2010 09:31
Last Modified:31 Jan 2011 08:35

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