Clear-water scour below underwater pipelines under steady flow

Dey, Subhasish ; Singh, Navneet P. (2008) Clear-water scour below underwater pipelines under steady flow Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 134 (5). pp. 588-600. ISSN 0733-9429

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Experiments on clear-water scour below underwater pipelines (initially laid on the sediment bed) in uniform and nonuniform sediments under steady flow were conducted. Equilibrium scour profiles were modeled by a cubic polynomial. The experimental results are examined to describe the influence of various parameters on equilibrium scour depth. The equilibrium scour depth ds increases with increase in approach flow depth h for shallow flow depths, becoming independent of higher flow depths when h/b>5, where b=pipe diameter. However, the curves of scour depth versus sediment size d and Froude number Fb have a maximum value of ds/b = 1.65 at b/d = 27 and Fb = 0.6. The influence of sediment gradation on scour depth is prominent for nonuniform sediments, which reduce scour depth to a large extent due to the formation of armor layer within the scour hole. The influence of different shaped cross sections of pipes on the scour depth was investigated, where the shape factors for circular, 45° (diagonal facing) and 90° (side facing) square pipes obtained as 1, 1.29, and 1.91, respectively. Using the data of scour depths at different times, the time variation of scour depth is scaled by an exponential law, where the nondimensional time scale increases sharply with increase in Froude number characterized by the pipe diameter. In addition, clear-water scour below circular pipelines laid on a thinly armored sand bed (the sand bed is overlain by a thin armor layer of gravels) was experimentally studied. Depending on the pipe diameter, armor gravel, and bed-sand sizes, three cases of scour holes were recognized. The comparison of the experimental data reveals that the scour depth below a pipeline with an armor layer under limiting stability of the surface particles (approach flow velocity nearly equaling critical velocity for surface particles) is greater than that without armor layer for the same sand bed, if the secondary armoring formed within the scour hole is scattered. In contrast, the scour depth with an armor layer is less than that without armor layer for the same sand bed, when the scour hole is shielded by the secondary armor layer.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to American Society of Civil Engineers.
Keywords:Erosion; Scour; Sediment Transport; Open Channel Flow; Submarine Pipelines; Steady Flow
ID Code:79029
Deposited On:23 Jan 2012 15:02
Last Modified:23 Jan 2012 15:02

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