Immune physiology and oogenesis in fetal and adult humans, ovarian infertility, and totipotency of adult ovarian stem cells

Bukovsky, Antonin ; Caudle, Michael R. ; Virant-Klun, Irma ; Gupta, Satish K. ; Dominguez, Roberto ; Svetlikova, Marta ; Xu, Fei (2009) Immune physiology and oogenesis in fetal and adult humans, ovarian infertility, and totipotency of adult ovarian stem cells Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today - Reviews, 87 (1). pp. 64-89. ISSN 1542-975X

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It is still widely believed that while oocytes in invertebrates and lower vertebrates are periodically renewed throughout life, oocytes in humans and higher vertebrates are formed only during the fetal/perinatal period. However, this dogma is questioned, and clashes with Darwinian evolutionary theory. Studies of oogenesis and follicular renewal from ovarian stem cells (OSCs) in adult human ovaries, and of the role of third-party bone marrow-derived cells (monocyte-derived tissue macrophages and T lymphocytes) could help provide a better understanding of the causes of ovarian infertility, its prevention, and potential treatment. We have reported differentiation of distinct cell types from OSC and the production of new eggs in cultures derived from premenopausal and postmenopausal human ovaries. OSCs are also capable of producing neural/neuronal cells in vitro after sequential stimulation with sex steroid combinations. Hence, OSC represent a unique type of totipotent adult stem cells, which could be utilized for autologous treatment of premature ovarian failure and also for autologous stem cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases without use of allogeneic embryonic stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer. The in vivo application of sex steroid combinations may augment the proliferation of existing neural stem cells and their differentiation into mature neuronal cells (systemic regenerative therapy). Such treatment may also stimulate the transdifferentiation of autologous neural stem cell precursors into neural stem cells useful for topical or systemic regenerative treatment.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to John Wiley and Sons.
Keywords:Animal Models; Epithelial-neural Transdifferentiation; Immune Adaptation; Neo-oogenesis; Ovarian Follicular Renewal; Ovarian Stem Cells; Premature Ovarian Failure; Prime Reproductive Period Theory; Sex Steroids; Regenerative Medicine; Systemic Regenerative Therapy; Tissue Culture; Totipotent Stem Cells
ID Code:72122
Deposited On:28 Nov 2011 06:23
Last Modified:28 Nov 2011 06:23

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