Tectonics and evolution of the central sector of the Himalaya [and discussion]

Valdiya, K. S. ; Cronin, V. S. (1988) Tectonics and evolution of the central sector of the Himalaya [and discussion] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - A, 326 (1589). pp. 151-175. ISSN 0264-3820

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Official URL: http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/326...

Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1988.0083


Following the India--Asia collision, intracrustal movements along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in a piggy-back-style, thrust duplexes developed that uplifted the Vaikrita (Central) crystallines of the basement to more than 8000 m elevation. Blocking of subduction on the suture and slowing down of movement on the MCT led to the formation of the Trans-Himadri (Malari) Thrust between the Vaikrita basement and the Tethyan cover sediments, and to gravity-induced backfolds and backthrusts in the latter. The Vaikrita crystallines underwent upper amphibolite to lower granulite facies metamorphism at 600-650 degrees C and more than 5 kbar (1 kbar = 108 Pa) and migmatistation associated with 28--20 Ma old S-type granites that formed at 15--30 km depth during the culmination of metamorphism and thrust deformation. Delimited by the MCT and MBT, the Lesser Himalaya is made of Proterozoic sediments beneath the Almora nappe constituted of low- to medium-grade metamorphics and 1900 ± 100 Ma old granitic gneisses and 560 ± 20 Ma old granites. The Lesser Himilaya underwent considerable neotectonic rejuvenation during differential movements along the MBT. The frontal Siwalik molasse below the MBT was severely thrusted and folded in the late Holocene, and continued underthrusting of the Indian Shield beneath the Himalaya is manifest in the development and activation of the deep Himalayan Front Fault (HFF), which separates the Siwalik from the subRecent--Recent alluvial plain of the Ganga Basin.

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