Effect of bridging units on photophysical and DNA binding properties of a few cyclophanes

Neelakandan, Prakash P. ; Sanju, Krishnankutty S. ; Ramaiah, Danaboyina (2010) Effect of bridging units on photophysical and DNA binding properties of a few cyclophanes Photochemistry and Photobiology, 86 (2). pp. 282-289. ISSN 0031-8655

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Official URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-...

Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2009.00660.x


A few novel anthracene-based cyclophanes CP-1, CP-2 and CP-3 were synthesized and their interactions with DNA were investigated employing photophysical and biophysical techniques. In methanol and acetonitrile, these systems exhibited optical properties characteristic of the anthracene chromophore. However, in the aqueous medium, the symmetric cyclophane CP-1 showed a dual emission having λmax at 430 and 550 nm, due to the monomer and excimer, respectively. In contrast, the cyclophanes CP-2 and CP-3 in the aqueous medium showed structured anthracene absorption and emission spectra similar to those obtained in methanol and acetonitrile. DNA binding studies indicate that CP-1 undergoes efficient nonclassical partial intercalative interactions with DNA resulting in the exclusive formation of a sandwich-type excimer having enhanced emission intensity and lifetimes. The cyclophane CP-2 having one anthracene moiety exhibited nonclassical intercalative binding with DNA, albeit with less efficiency compared with CP-1. In contrast, CP-3, having sterically bulky viologen bridging group showed DNA electrostatic as well as groove binding interactions. These results demonstrate that the nature of the bridging unit plays an important role in the binding mode of the cyclophanes with DNA and in the formation of the novel sandwich-type excimer.

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