An iron complex of dipyridophenazine as a potent photocytotoxic agent in visible light

Saha, Sounik ; Majumdar, Ritankar ; Roy, Mithun ; Dighe, Rajan R. ; Chakravarty, Akhil R. (2009) An iron complex of dipyridophenazine as a potent photocytotoxic agent in visible light Inorganic Chemistry, 48 (6). pp. 2652-2663. ISSN 0020-1669

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Ternary iron(III) complexes [FeL(B)] (1-3) of a trianionic tetradentate phenolate-based ligand (L) and phenanthroline base (B), namely, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1), dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq, 2), and dipyridophenazine (dppz, 3), have been prepared and structurally characterized and their DNA binding, cleavage, and photocytotoxic properties studied. The complexes with a FeN3O3 core show the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple near -0.6 V in DMF, a magnetic moment value of ~5.9 μB, and a binding propensity to both calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. They exhibit red-light-induced DNA cleavage activity following a metal-assisted photoredox pathway forming HO• radicals but do not show any photocleavage of BSA in UV-A light. Complex 3 displays photocytotoxicity in the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) with respective IC50 values of 3.59 μM and 6.07 μM in visible light and 251 nM and 751 nM in UV-A light of 365 nm. No significant cytotoxicity is observed in the dark. The photoexposed HeLa cells, treated prior with complex 3, have shown marked changes in nuclear morphology as demonstrated by Hoechst 33258 nuclear stain. Generation of reactive oxygen species has been evidenced from the fluorescence enhancement of dichlorofluorescein upon treatment with 3 followed by photoexposure. Nuclear chromatin cleavage has been observed in acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining of treated HeLa cells and from alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. Caspase 3/7 activity in HeLa cells has been found to be upregulated by only 4 fold after photoirradiation, signifying the fact that cell death through a caspase 3/7 dependent pathway may not be solely operative.

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Source:Copyright of this article belongs to American Chemical Society.
ID Code:6279
Deposited On:20 Oct 2010 11:19
Last Modified:24 May 2011 10:34

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