Backward-facing step flows for various expansion ratios at low and moderate Reynolds numbers

Biswas, G. ; Breuer, M. ; Durst, F. (2004) Backward-facing step flows for various expansion ratios at low and moderate Reynolds numbers Journal of Fluids Engineering, 126 (3). pp. 362-374. ISSN 0098-2202

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This paper is concerned with the behavior of flows over a backward-facing step geometry for various expansion ratios H/h=1.9423, 2.5 and 3.0. A literature survey was carried out and it was found that the flow shows a strong two-dimensional behavior, on the plane of symmetry, for Reynolds numbers ReD=ρUbD/μ below approximately 400 (Ub= bulk velocity and D= hydraulic diameter). In this Reynolds number range, two-dimensional predictions were carried out to provide information on the general integral properties of backward-facing step flows, on mean velocity distributions and streamlines. Information on characteristic flow patterns is provided for a wide Reynolds number range, 10−4≤ReD≤800. In the limiting case of ReD→0, a sequence of Moffatt eddies of decreasing size and intensity is verified to exist in the concave corner also at ReD=1. The irreversible pressure losses are determined for various Reynolds numbers as a function of the expansion ratio. The two-dimensional simulations are known to underpredict the primary reattachment length for Reynolds numbers beyond which the actual flow is observed to be three-dimensional. The spatial evolution of jet-like flows in both the streamwise and the spanwise direction and transition to three-dimensionality were studied at a Reynolds number ReD=648. This three-dimensional analysis with the same geometry and flow conditions as reported by Armaly et al. (1983) reveals the formation of wall jets at the side wall within the separating shear layer. The wall jets formed by the spanwise component of the velocity move towards the symmetry plane of the channel. A self-similar wall-jet profile emerges at different spanwise locations starting with the vicinity of the side wall. These results complement information on backward-facing step flows that is available in the literature.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Keywords:Channel Flow; External Flows; Flow Simulation; Jets; Laminar Flow
ID Code:59860
Deposited On:07 Sep 2011 14:26
Last Modified:07 Sep 2011 14:26

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