Stimulation of rhodopsin phosphorylation by guanine nucleotides in rod outer segments

Swarup, Ghanshyam ; Garbers, David L. (1983) Stimulation of rhodopsin phosphorylation by guanine nucleotides in rod outer segments Biochemistry, 22 (5). pp. 1102-1106. ISSN 0006-2960

Full text not available from this repository.

Official URL:

Related URL:


Porcine rod outer segment (ROS) proteins were phosphorylated in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP and Mg2+, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and detected by autoradiography. The phosphorylation of rhodopsin, the major protein-staining band (Mr approximately 34 000-38 000), was markedly and specifically increased by exposure of rod outer segments to light; various guanine nucleotides (10 microM) including GMP, GDP, and GTP also specifically increased rhodopsin phosphorylation (up to 5-fold). Adenine nucleotides (cyclic AMP, AMP, and ADP at 10 microM) and 8-bromo-GMP (10 microM) or cyclic 8-bromo-GMP (10 μM) had no detectable stimulatory effect on rhodopsin phosphorylation. GTP increased the phosphorylation of rhodopsin at concentrations as low as 100 nM, and guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imidotriphosphate), a relatively stable analogue of GTP, was nearly as effective as GTP. Maximal stimulation of rhodopsin phosphorylation by GTP was observed at 2 microM. GMP and GDP were less potent than GTP. Both cyclic GMP and GMP were converted to GTP during the time period of the protein phosphorylation reaction, suggestive of a GTP-specific effect. Transphosphorylation of guanine nucleotides by [32P]ATP and subsequent utilization of [32P]GTP as a more effective substrate were ruled out as an explanation for the guanine nucleotide stimulation. With increasing concentrations of ROS proteins, the phosphorylation of rhodopsin was nonlinear, whereas in the presence of GTP (2 μM) linear increases in rhodopsin phosphorylation as a function of added ROS protein were observed. These results suggest that GTP stimulates the phosphorylation of rhodopsin by ATP and that a GTP-sensitive inhibitor (or regulator) of rhodopsin phosphorylation may be present in ROS.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to American Chemical Society.
ID Code:55924
Deposited On:19 Aug 2011 07:54
Last Modified:19 Aug 2011 07:54

Repository Staff Only: item control page