Neogene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and evolution: equatorial to subantarctic, South Pacific

Srinivasan, M. S. ; Kennett, J. P. (1981) Neogene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and evolution: equatorial to subantarctic, South Pacific Marine Micropaleontology, 6 (5-6). pp. 499-533. ISSN 0377-8398

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Detailed planktonic foraminiferal zonations have been established for the Neogene (Latest Oligocene through present) in six DSDP sites in the South Pacific ranging from equatorial to subantarctic latitudes (48°S). Two basic zonal schemes are readily recognized: tropical and temperate. The tropical zonation is best developed in DSDP Site 289 and the temperate zonation in Sites 206, 207A and 284. Tropical and temperate zonations can be linked by a warm subtropical scheme in Site 208, because this sequence includes a mixture of tropical and temperate elements. A site located close to the Subantarctic Convergence (Site 281) contains a zonation largely of temperate character, but the present of cooler elements and some differences in biostratigraphic ranges have required a slightly different biostratigraphic scheme. Although two broad schemes are recognized, none of the biostratigraphic sequences are identical between any of the sites. This reflects differences in biogeography, evolution and diachronous extinction at various latitudes during the entire Neogene. Diachronism in biostratigraphic ranges continue to create difficulties in correlation across such wide latitudes. Our detailed work has required the establishment of new biostratigraphic zonations in certain parts of the Neogene sequence and modifications in some other parts. Otherwise, previously established schemes are followed as closely as possible. In the temperate region, a new zonation has been established for the Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene. For the remainder of the Neogene the zonation of Kennett (1973) has been largely used. The tropical zonation of Blow (1969) is employed in the equatorial Site 289, but with further subdivisions for Zones N4 and N17. For areas intermediate between tropical and temperate latitudes (Site 208), a modified Early Miocene zonation is established based on changes in tropical and temperate elements. The zonal schemes are established on taxa that exhibit both diachronous and isochronous ranges across the latitudes. Zones that are at least partly diachronous include the Globigerinoides trilobus and Globorotalia miozea Zones of Early Miocene age; perhaps the Globorotalia mayeri Zone (its base) of the Middle Miocene; the Globorotalia conomiozea Zone of the Late Miocene; and the Globorotalia crassaformis Zone of the Early Pliocene. A large number of datum levels are recognized based on first evolutionary appearances or extinctions. The most widely applicable datums are as follows: latest Oligocene-Globigerinoides F.A.; Early Miocene-Globoquadrina dehiscens, F.A., Globorotalia kugleri L.A., Catapsydrax dissimilis L.A. and Praeorbulina glomerosa F.A.; Middle Miocene-Orbulina suturalis F.A., Globorotalia peripheroacuta F.A., Fohsella lineage L.A., Globorotalia mayeri L.A.; Late Miocene- "Neogloboquadrina" continuosa L.A., Globoquadrina dehiscens L.A., Globorotalia cibaoensis F.A.; Early Pliocene-Globorotalia puncticulata F.A., Globorotalia margaritae F.A.; Early Pleistocene-Globorotalia truncatulinoides F.A. A number of other datums are identified which assist with correlation over more restricted latitudinal ranges. The evolution of most Neogene planktonic foraminifera is now well established for a wide range of water masses. Evolutionary lineages are primarily centered in the temperate and tropical regions. Tropical lineages have recently been reviewed by Srinivasan and Kennett (1981) and are not discussed in detail here. However, Sphaeroidinellopsis seminulina is now considered to have evolved directly into S. paenedehiscens during the Late Miocene and S. subdehiscens Blow is considered to be junior synonym of S. seminulina. A new evolutionary lineage is recognized in the warm subtropics (Site 208) whereby Globigerina woodi woodi gave rise to Globigerinoides subquadratus via Globigerina brazieri. The discovery of this lineage clearly demonstrates that Globigerinoides is a polyphyletic "genus". Another major phylogenetic lineage is recognized within the temperate globorotaliids of Early Miocene age as follows: "N." continuosa → Globorotalia zealandica incognita → G. zealandica zelandica → G. praescitula → G. miozea. Although parts of this lineage have been recognized earlier, the entire phylogeny has previously been underscribed. A new Early to Middle Miocene lineage is recognized in the subantarctic to temperate areas which involve a transition from Globorotalia praescitula to G. challengeri n. sp. via intermediate forms. Two major Neogene globorotaliid lineages-the Menardella of the tropics and Middle Miocene to Recent forms of Globoconella of the temperate areas-are both considered to have evolved from Globorotalia praescitula beginning in the Early Miocene. This evolution initially was restricted to temperate areas but has since separated into distinctly tropical and temperate phylogenetic elements.

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