The diamond: its structure and properties

Raman, C. V. (1968) The diamond: its structure and properties Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A, 67 (5). pp. 231-246. ISSN 0370-0089

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A critical study of the crystal forms of diamond from various sources demonstrates that the symmetry of the structure may be either that of Class 32 or Class 31, in other words that the structure may be either centrosymmetric or non-centrosymmetric. Diamonds belonging to Class 31 may however exhibit a pseudo-octahedral symmetry of external form by reason of the interpenetration of oppositely directed structures having the lower symmetry. The existence of diamond with two differing structures provides an insight into the many remarkable properties of this material,viz., the striking differences observed in the infra-red absorption spectra, differences in transparency to ultra-violet rays, the differences in the intensity of their X-ray reflections and the variations in the intensity and colour of the luminescence exhibited by them. The modes of atomic vibration in diamond can be completely described and their frequencies evaluated by very simple procedures. The vibration frequencies can be determined experimentally by observations of the frequency shifts in the scattering of light or by infra-red spectroscopy, the results by the two methods being fully in agreement. The heat capacity of diamond may then be computed, giving results in highly satisfactory concordance with the observational data. The principal mode of atomic vibration having a frequency of 1332 cm.−1 is triply degenerate. These vibrations can be excited in the lattice planes of diamond by the incidence of monochromatic X-rays if it belongs to crystal Class 31. The three-fold degeneracy of the vibration reveals itself as the three distinct spots in the resulting dynamic X-ray reflection by the octahedral lattice planes. The complete electronic frequency spectrum of diamond has been evaluated by a very simple procedure. The results are highly successful in explaining the known optical and spectroscopic properties of diamond.

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