Estrogen-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway : role of superoxide and nitric oxide

Mishra, Durga Prasad ; Shaha, Chandrima (2004) Estrogen-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway : role of superoxide and nitric oxide Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280 . pp. 6181-6196. ISSN 0021-9258

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The detrimental effects of estrogen on testicular function provide a conceptual basis to examine the speculative link between increased exposure to estrogens and spermatogenic cell death. Using an in vitro model, we provide an understanding of the events leading to estrogen-induced apoptosis in cells of spermatogenic lineage. Early events associated with estrogen exposure were up-regulation of FasL and increased generation of H2O2, superoxide, and nitric oxide. The ability of anti-FasL antibodies to prevent several downstream biochemical changes and cell death induced by 17β-estradiol substantiates the involvement of the cell death receptor pathway. Evidence for the amplification of the death-inducing signals through mitochondria was obtained from the transient mitochondrial hyperpolarization observed after estradiol exposure resulting in cytochrome c release. A combination of nitric oxide and superoxide but not H2O2 was responsible for the mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Mn(III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride, an intracellular peroxynitrite scavenger, was able to reduce mitochondrial hyperpolarization and cell death. Although nitric oxide augmentation occurred through an increase in the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase, superoxide up-regulation was a product of estradiol metabolism. All of the above changes were mediated through an estrogen receptor-based mechanism because tamoxifen, the estrogen receptor modulator, was able to rescue the cells from estrogen-induced alterations. This study establishes the importance of the independent capability of cells of the spermatogenic lineage to respond to estrogens and most importantly suggests that low dose estrogens can potentially cause severe spermatogenic cellular dysfunction leading to impaired fertility even without interference of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
ID Code:49605
Deposited On:20 Jul 2011 14:16
Last Modified:20 Jul 2011 14:16

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