Thomson, James D. ; Shivanna, K. R. ; Kendrick, J. ; Knox, R. B. (1989) Sex expression, breeding system, and pollen biology of Ricinocarpos pinifolius: a case of androdioecy? American Journal of Botany, 76 (7). pp. 1048-1059. ISSN 0002-9122
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Official URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2444527
A population of 54 Ricinocarpos pinifolius (Euphorbiaceae) plants contained male plants, which produced only staminate flowers, and hermaphrodites, which produced staminate and pistillate flowers. The fraction of pistillate flowers ranged continuously from 0 to 0.68. Insect pollination was effective and fruit set virtually complete except for losses to herbivores. Self pollen, outcross pollen from male plants, and outcross pollen from hermaphrodites were all equivalent in viability, germination, tube growth, ovule penetration, and fruit setting ability. Inbreeding depression was manifested as late abortion of some selfed seeds. Geitonogamous selfing is largely prevented by temporal separation of male and female functions within plants. This temporal separation, combined with population-wide synchrony of flowering, may create unusual conditions allowing male plants at low frequency to match hermaphrodites in reproductive success.
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