X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on ZnO/Bi2O3 varistors

Sainkar, S. R. ; Badrinarayanan, S. ; Sinha, A. P. B. ; Date, S. K. (1981) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on ZnO/Bi2O3 varistors Surface and Interface Analysis, 3 (3). pp. 142-145. ISSN 0142-2421

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Official URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sia.740...

Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sia.740030308


The intergranular layer and its microstructure, proposed earlier to behave non-linearly in the ZnO/Bi2O3 varistor ceramic system, has been studied by XPS. Our results clearly indicate the formation of an intergranular layer rich in Bi2O3 separating the semiconducting ZnO grains. With increase in sintering temperature, XPS results show the enrichment of the intergranular layer (Bi2O3 phase) without an additional phase being formed. The non-linear coefficient (α ) in the current-voltage characteristic increases smoothly up to 1300° C. Afterwards, there is a loss of Bi ions from the Bi2O3 enriched intergranular phase resulting in the decrease of α , and in the characteristic XPS peak intensity.

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