Solar cosmic ray phenomena

McCracken, K. G. ; Rao, U. R. (1970) Solar cosmic ray phenomena Space Science Reviews, 11 (2-3). pp. 155-233. ISSN 0038-6308

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This review attempts to present an integrated view of the several types of solar cosmic ray phenomena. The relevant large and small scale properties of the interplanetary medium are first surveyed, and their use in the development of a quantitative understanding of the cosmic ray propagation processes summarised. Solar cosmic ray events, in general, are classified into two phenomenological categories: (a) prompt events, and (b) delayed events. The properties of both classes of events are summarised. The properties considered are the frequency of occurrence, dependence on parent flare position, the time profile, energy spectra, anisotropies, particle species, velocity dispersions, etc. A single model is presented to explain the various species of delayed event. Thus the halo and core events, energetic storm particle events, EDP events and proton recurrent regions are suggested to be essentially of common origin. The association of flare particle events with electromagnetic phenomena, including optical, X-ray and microwave emissions is summarised. The conditions in a sunspot group, and solar flare that are considered to be conducive to cosmic ray acceleration processes are discussed. Considerable discussion is devoted to physical processes occurring near the Sun. Near Sun particle storage, and diffusion, and secondary injection processes that are triggered by a far distant solar flare are reviewed. In order to explain the considerable differences between aspects of the prompt and delayed events, we propose selective diffusion processes that only occur at early times in a solar flare. The type IV radio emissions at metric wave-lengths are suggested to yield direct evidence for the storage processes that are necessary to explain the properties of the delayed events, and also as yielding direct evidence of secondary injection processes. We conclude by briefly summarising the ionospheric effects of the solar cosmic radiation.

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Source:Copyright of this article belongs to Springer.
ID Code:42755
Deposited On:06 Jun 2011 10:14
Last Modified:17 May 2016 23:56

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