Observation of solar particle fluxes over extended solar longitudes

Bukata, R. P. ; Rao, U. R. ; McCracken, K. G. ; Keath, E. P. (1972) Observation of solar particle fluxes over extended solar longitudes Solar Physics, 26 (1). pp. 229-240. ISSN 0038-0938

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Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00155122


Detailed particle observations from various Pioneer Spacecrafts located at different heliolongitudes during the complex solar flare events of March 30-April 10, 1969 have been utilised to investigate the energy dependence of azimuthal gradients of cosmic ray particles and its effect on the decay of the flare intensity. For an observer located to the east of the centroid of the population, the azimuthal corotation term and the convection term will be additive, resulting in a short decay time constant. An observer located to the west of the centroid of the population will experience a much longer decay time constant, the corotation term partially or completely compensating the loss of particles due to convection. At very low energies, the azimuthal corotation term may even be more than the convection term, thus resulting in a rise in intensity instead of decay during late in the event. Using the relationship showing the dependence of the spectral exponent of the cosmic ray flux late in a flare event on the azimuth from the centroid of the population given by McCracken et al., the energy dependence of the decay time constant and the cross-over energy at which the azimuthal gradient term equals the convection term are investigated. The experimental observations are shown to be generally consistent with the theoretical picture, confirming the importance of convection and the azimuthal gradient in determining the decay profile of flare events.

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