A radical departure from the 'steady state' concept in cosmology

Hoyle, F. ; Narlikar, J. V. (1966) A radical departure from the 'steady state' concept in cosmology Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences, 290 (1421). pp. 162-176. ISSN 1364-5021

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Official URL: http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/290...

Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1966.0043


The results in this paper are based on an entirely different choice of the undetermined coupling constant f which appears in the theory of creation of matter. Previously f was chosen to make the steady-state expansion rate coincident with the observed expansion rate. Now that we take a much larger value for f, the corresponding steady-state expansion rate is much greater than the observed value. We interpret this difference as showing that we live in a wide, possibly temporary, fluctuation from the steady-state situation. The expansion rate in such a fluctuation follows the Einstein-de Sitter relations. The natural scale set by the new steady-state corresponds to the masses of clusters of galaxies, we obtain 1013M instead of 1023M for the 'observable universe'. It is suggested that elliptical galaxies were formed early in the development of a fluctuation. Our discussion of high energy phenomena leads to immediate explanations of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays, of the presence of e+ in cosmic rays and of the rate of energy production associated with radio sources.

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