Manganese in cell metabolism of higher plants

Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita Joardar ; Sharma, Archana (1991) Manganese in cell metabolism of higher plants The Botanical Review, 57 (2). pp. 117-149. ISSN 0006-8101

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Manganese, a group VII element of the periodic table, plays an important role in biological systems and exists in a variety of oxidation states. The normal level of Mn in air surrounding major industrial sites is 0.03 μ g/m3, in drinking water 0.05 mg/liter and in soil between 560 and 850 ppm. Manganese is an essential trace element for higher plant systems. It is absorbed mainly as divalent Mn2+, which competes effectively with Mg2+ and strongly depresses its rate of uptake. The accumulation of Mn particularly takes place in peripheral cells of the leaf petiole, petiolule and palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. Mn is involved in photosynthesis and activation of different enzyme systems. Mn deficiency may be expressed as inhibition of cell elongation and yield decrease. Mn toxicity is one of the important growth limiting factors in acid soils. Plant tops are affected to a greater extent than root systems. The toxicity symptoms are, in general, similar to the deficiency symptoms. Toxic effects of Mn on plant growth have been attributed to several physiological and biochemical pathways, although the detailed mechanism is still not very clear. Higher O2 uptake and loss of control in Mn activated enzyme systems have been associated with Mn toxicity. Mn interferes with the uptake, transport and use of several essential elements including Ca, Fe, Cu, Al, Si, Mg, K, P and N. Excess of Mn reduces the uptake of certain elements and increases that of others. pH plays an important role in Mn uptake. Acidic pH causes a lack of substantial amount of nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor and leads to a high amount of Mn in leaves. High microbial activity, water logging and poorly structured soils cause severe Mn toxicity even in neutral soils. The molecular mechanism of Mn-tolerance is not yet clear. The level of tolerance is different in different species and seems to be controlled by more than one gene. Further information is required on the factors affecting the distribution, accumulation and membrane permeability of the metal in different plant parts and different species. Understanding of the genetic basis of Mn-tolerance is necessary to improve adaptation of crops against acid soils, water logging and other adverse soil conditions.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to New York Botanical Gardens.
ID Code:39004
Deposited On:05 May 2011 14:00
Last Modified:05 May 2011 14:00

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