Species-specific prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among patients with diabetes mellitus and its relation to their glycaemic status

Goswami, R. ; Dadhwal, V. ; Tejaswi, S. ; Datta, K. ; Paul, A. ; Haricharan, R. N. ; Banerjee, U. ; Kochupillai, N. P. (2000) Species-specific prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among patients with diabetes mellitus and its relation to their glycaemic status Journal of Infection, 41 (2). pp. 162-166. ISSN 0163-4453

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Official URL: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01634...

Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jinf.2000.0723


Objectives: Non- C. albicans Candida species are increasingly being recognized as the cause of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis. These species are often less susceptible to antifungal agents. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at risk for vulvo-vaginal candidasis. We assessed the species-specific prevalence rate and risk of candidiasis in patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy controls. Methods: Genital tract examination, direct microscopy and fungal cultures of discharge collected by high vaginal swab were undertaken among 78 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus (mean (±∫Γ ) age 32±12 years and body mass index (BMI) 22.3± 5.5kg/m2) and 88 age- and BMI-matched healthy females. Glycaemic control in the diabetic cohort was assessed by measuring total glycosylated haemoglobin. Results: Candida species were isolated in 36 of 78 (46%) subjects with diabetes mellitus and in 21 of 88 (23%) healthy subjects (Chi-squared 9.11, P=0.0025). The predominant Candida species isolated in diabetics with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis were Candida glabrata (39%), C. albicans (26%) and C. tropicalis (17%). In contrast, in the control group, C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. hemulonii comprised 30% each, with none having C. tropicalis infection (for C. tropicalis: diabetic vs. control; 17% vs. nil, P=0.05). Among the diabetic group, subjects with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis had significantly higher mean HbA1 when compared to those who had no such infection (12.8±2.6% vs. 9.7±1.7% respectively, P=0.001). The overall accuracy of direct microscopy and clinical examination for predicting vulvo-vaginal candidiasis was only 77% and 51%, respectively, in the diabetic group, and 83% and 65% in the control group. Conclusions: Patients with diabetes mellitus had a high prevalence rate (46%) of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis with relative risk of 2.45. The non- C. albicans species such as C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were the predominant species isolated among them. There seems to be a significant link between hyperglycaemia and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis.

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