Parathyroid hormone gene polymorphism and sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism

Goswami, Ravinder ; Mohapatra, Trilochan ; Gupta, Nandita ; Rani, Rajni ; Tomar, Neeraj ; Dikshit, Anupam ; Sharma, Ram Kumar (2004) Parathyroid hormone gene polymorphism and sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89 (10). pp. 4840-4845. ISSN 0021-972X

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The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism are currently under investigation. Although autoantibodies against the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) have been implicated to play a role, these could be demonstrated in only 49% of a group of 51 patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism that we previously studied. Therefore, we investigated 49 of these patients further, regardless of their antibody status, and looked for mutations in the section of the PTH gene sequence that coded for prepro-PTH as well as the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the gene, which is believed to be involved in the stability of its mRNA. We also examined the relationship between the clinical manifestations of the disease and the occurrences of two commonly observed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PTH gene. In 49 of the patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and in 55 healthy controls, the SNPs were characterized by restriction analysis using DraII and BstBI enzymes. In a subset of these patients, exons 2 and 3 of the PTH gene (n = 37) and its 3'-UTR region (n = 40) were also sequenced. No mutations were observed in the segment of the PTH gene coding for the signal peptide, prohormone, or the 3'-UTR region. However, three well described SNPs were observed: 1) an A→G substitution in intron 1 in 35.1% of the patients; 2) a G→A substitution in intron 2, characterized by BstBI, in one or both alleles in 27%; and 3) a C→A substitution at codon 52 (CGA) of exon 3, characterized by DraII, in one or both alleles in 59.7% of the patients. There was no significant difference in the frequency of occurrence of these SNPs between the patient and the control groups. Furthermore, the mean age at onset of symptoms, body mass index, frequency of cataract, tetany, convulsion, basal ganglia calcification, serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and intact PTH were not significantly different between patients with and without the above-described SNPs. Thus, the data from this report demonstrate that in patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism, neither the clinical manifestations nor the biochemical indexes of the disease are related to the occurrence of mutations or SNPs in the PTH gene. Because neither patient nor control samples exhibited any variations in the sequence of their 3'-UTR regions, it is unlikely that mRNA instability is a factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. Additional studies are required to investigate the role of other genes and autoantigens that may be involved in the genesis of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism.

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