On elementary heavy particles with any integral charge

Bhabha, H. J. (1940) On elementary heavy particles with any integral charge Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A, 11 (4). pp. 347-368. ISSN 0370-0089

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Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03051350


The previous paper having shown that all divergences and large crosssections for neutral mesons being due entirely to neglect of radiation reaction, an attempt is made in this paper to remove those difficulties in the theory of charged mesons which do not occur in the theory of neutral mesons by following up an idea put forward tentatively by the present author some time ago on the ground that it would diminish the excessive scattering of charged mesons. It is assumed that the heavy elementary particles can exist in states of all integral charge, positive, negative or zero, the different states having different rest masses, of which the states with charge 0 ande (neutron and proton) must be assumed to have the lowest rest masses, while the proton states of charge -e and 2e are assumed to have the next lowest. The cross-sections for the creation and annihilation of protons of charge 2e and -e by several processes are calculated. The collision of a fast proton with another stationary proton is the most effective process for creating protons of charge 2e, the cross-section being of the order 10-27 cm.2 The colliding proton must have a kinetic energy of at least 35 M.e-V. Neutrons of the same energy would produce protons of charge -e on colliding with neutrons. The cross-sections for the production of protons of charge 2e and -e by mesons or photons are of the order 10-27 cm.2 The life time for spontaneous decay of these particles is of the order of 1/6 seconds, while the life time in air for reconversion into ordinary protons or neutrons by collision with a nucleus is of the order Z 10-7 secs. for low velocities. These particles have an interaction with the proton or neutron which is the same as the proton-neutron interaction with small additional terms. The energy-range relationship is calculated. The mean ionisation along a tract of a proton of charge 2e is nearly twice that of a proton or half that of an α-particle of the same range. If the theory is correct these particles are expected to occur in the nuclear explosions produced by cosmic rays, though less frequently than ordinary protons. Study of Wilson chamber photographs and photographs of nuclear explosions in the emulsions of photographic plates especially at high altitudes might be expected to reveal or disprove the existence of these particles.

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