10-12 years follow-up of highly bacillated BL/LL leprosy patients on combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy

Katoch, Kiran ; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan ; Natrajan, Mohan ; Sreevatsa, ; Gupta, Umesh Dutt ; Sharma, Vishnu Dutt ; Shivanavar, Channappa T. (2004) 10-12 years follow-up of highly bacillated BL/LL leprosy patients on combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy Vaccine, 22 (27-28). pp. 3649-3657. ISSN 0264-410X

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Official URL: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02644...

Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.03.037


This study reports the follow-up results of 36 highly bacillated untreated BL/LL cases who were serially allocated to three treatment groups. Group I patients received a modified WHO regimen (Rifampicin 600 mg once a month supervised, 50 mg of Clofazimine and 100 mg of Dapsone daily unsupervised) and BCG 0.1 mg per dose 6 monthly; group II patients received the same multi-drug treatment (MDT) and Mw (2×108 killed bacilli per dose) 6 monthly: group III patients received the same MDT with 0.1 ml of distilled water 6 monthly and acted as a control. Treatment was continued till smear negativity. All these three groups were comparable by their initial clinical score, bacteriological index (BI), viable bacilli as assessed by the mouse foot pad (MFP), bacillary adenosine triphoshate (ATP) content and also histologically at the time of starting treatment. All these parameters were evaluated every 6 months. The vaccines were well tolerated. All the patients in group I became smear negative by 3.5 years, in group II in 3 years whereas those in group III took 5 years. The incidence of reactions was the same in all the groups during the first 2 years, however, patients of group III (MDT+ placebo) continued to have reactions up to 3 years. No viable bacilli could be detected in the local and distal sites as estimated by MFP and bacillary ATP after 12 months in both the immunotherapy groups. These could be detected in patients on MDT alone up to 24 months of therapy. Histologically patients in both the immunotherapy groups (groups I and II) showed accelerated granuloma clearance, histological upgrading and non-specific healing without granuloma formation both at the local and distal sites and this was achieved much earlier compared to the MDT + placebo group. Thus, by the addition of immunotherapy the effective treatment period of achieving bacteriological negativity could be reduced by about 40%, time period of reactions reduced by 33% and there were no reactions and/or relapses in the 10-12 years post-treatment follow-up.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.
Keywords:Immunotherapy; Chemotherapy; Leprosy; Long-term Follow-up
ID Code:16846
Deposited On:16 Nov 2010 13:27
Last Modified:22 Feb 2011 09:40

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