Leaching of manganese nodules in ammoniacal medium using glucose as reductant

Das, R. P. ; Anand, S. ; Das, S. C. ; Jena, P. K. (1986) Leaching of manganese nodules in ammoniacal medium using glucose as reductant Hydrometallurgy, 16 (3). pp. 335-344. ISSN 0304-386X

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Official URL: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/030438...

Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-386X(86)90008-3


Polymetallic Indian Ocean nodules can be leached in ammoniacal solution in the presence of glucose. The various parameters chosen for leaching studies were: amount of glucose, time, pH, temperature, concentrations of ammonia and ammonium salt, and particle size. The percentage extraction of copper, nickel and cobalt decreases when the glucose concentration is increased to more than 0.4 gramme per gramme of nodule at 338 K and 0.2 g/g at 358 K. The dissolution of copper has been found to be dependent more on the pH of the solution than on the total molarity of ammonia and the ammonium ion. Leaching temperatures above 373 K are disadvantageous for the extraction of copper and cobalt, whereas nickel extraction is about 95% even at 433 K. The rate of leaching for all three metals is independent of the particle size in the range studied. All the copper, about 90% of the nickel and 60% of the cobalt can be extracted under the following leaching conditions: temperature 358 K, time 4 h, initial ammonia concentration 2.5 M, ammonium chloride concentration 0.37 M and glucose 0.2 gramme per gramme of nodule.

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