Modeling of formation of gold nanoparticles by citrate method

Kumar, Sanjeev ; Gandhi, K. S. ; Kumar, R. (2007) Modeling of formation of gold nanoparticles by citrate method Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 46 (10). pp. 3128-3136. ISSN 0888-5885

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Properties of nanoparticles are size dependent, and a model to predict particle size is of importance. Gold nanoparticles are commonly synthesized by reducing tetrachloroauric acid with trisodium citrate, a method pioneered by Turkevich et al (Discuss. Faraday Soc. 1951, 11, 55). Data from several investigators that used this method show that when the ratio of initial concentrations of citrate to gold is varied from 0.4 to ~2, the final mean size of the particles formed varies by a factor of 7, while subsequent increases in the ratio hardly have any effect on the size. In this paper, a model is developed to explain this widely varying dependence. The steps that lead to the formation of particles are as follows: reduction of Au3+ in solution, disproportionation of Au+ to gold atoms and their nucleation, growth by disproportionation on particle surface, and coagulation. Oxidation of citrate results in the formation of dicarboxy acetone, which aids nucleation but also decomposes into side products. A detailed kinetic model is developed on the basis of these steps and is combined with population balance to predict particle-size distribution. The model shows that, unlike the usual balance between nucleation and growth that determines the particle size, it is the balance between rate of nucleation and degradation of dicarboxy acetone that determines the particle size in the citrate process. It is this feature that is able to explain the unusual dependence of the mean particle size on the ratio of citrate to gold salt concentration. It is also found that coagulation plays an important role in determining the particle size at high concentrations of citrate.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to American Chemical Society.
ID Code:11479
Deposited On:16 Nov 2010 13:54
Last Modified:02 Jun 2011 04:37

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