Reduced risk of acute GVHD following mobilization of HLA-identical sibling donors with GM-CSF alone

Devine, S. M. ; Brown, R. A. ; Mathews, V. ; Trinkaus, K. ; Khoury, H. ; Adkins, D. ; Vij, R. ; Sempek, D. ; Graubert, T. ; Tomasson, M. ; Goodnough, L. T. ; DiPersio, J. F. (2005) Reduced risk of acute GVHD following mobilization of HLA-identical sibling donors with GM-CSF alone Bone Marrow Transplantation, 36 (6). pp. 531-538. ISSN 0268-3369

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We retrospectively reviewed the results of transplanting peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) allografts from HLA-matched sibling donors mobilized using various hematopoietic cytokines. Patients had received allografts mobilized with Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (G, N=65) alone, G plus Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (G/GM, N=70), or GM-CSF alone at 10 or 15 μg/kg/day (GM, N=10 at 10 μg/kg/day and 21 at 15 μg/kg/day). The CD34+ and CD3+ cell content of grafts were significantly lower following GM alone compared to G alone (P<0.001 and 0.04, respectively). Nonhematopoietic toxicity observed in donors precluded dose escalation of GM-CSF beyond 10 μg/kg/day. Hematopoietic recovery was similar among all three groups. Grades II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was observed in only 13% of patients in the GM alone group compared to 49 and 69% in the G alone or G/GM groups, respectively (P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, receipt of PBPC mobilized with GM alone was associated with a lower risk of grades II–IV acute GVHD (hazard ratio 0.21; 95% CI 0.073, 0.58) compared to G alone or G/GM. There were no differences in relapse risk or overall survival among the groups. Donor PBPC grafts mobilized with GM-CSF alone result in prompt hematopoietic engraftment despite lower CD34+ cell doses and may reduce the risk of grades II–IV acute GVHD following HLA-matched PBPC transplantation.

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