GRP78 is an important host-factor for Japanese encephalitis virus entry and replication in mammalian cells

Nain, Minu ; Mukherjee, Sriparna ; Karmakar, Sonali Porey ; Paton, Andrienne W. ; Paton, James C. ; Abdin, M. Z. ; Basu, Anirban ; Kalia, Manjula ; Vrati, Sudhanshu (2017) GRP78 is an important host-factor for Japanese encephalitis virus entry and replication in mammalian cells Journal of Virology, 91 (6). pp. 1-21. ISSN 0022-538X

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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia with potential to become a global pathogen. Here, we identify glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as an important host protein for virus entry and replication. Using the plasma membrane fractions from mouse neuronal (Neuro2a) cells, mass spectroscopy analysis identified GRP78 as a protein interacting with recombinant JEV envelope protein domain III. GRP78 was found to be expressed on the plasma membranes of Neuro2a cells, mouse primary neurons, and human epithelial Huh-7 cells. Antibodies against GRP78 significantly inhibited JEV entry in all three cell types, suggesting an important role of the protein in virus entry. Depletion of GRP78 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly blocked JEV entry into Neuro2a cells, further supporting its role in virus uptake. Immunofluorescence studies showed extensive colocalization of GRP78 with JEV envelope protein in virus-infected cells. This interaction was also confirmed by immunoprecipitation studies. Additionally, GRP78 was shown to have an important role in JEV replication, as treatment of cells post-virus entry with subtilase cytotoxin that specifically cleaved GRP78 led to a substantial reduction in viral RNA replication and protein synthesis, resulting in significantly reduced extracellular virus titers. Our results indicate that GRP78, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperon of the HSP70 family, is a novel host factor involved at multiple steps of the JEV life cycle and could be a potential therapeutic target.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to American Society for Microbiology.
Keywords:Japanese Encephalitis Virus; Flavivirus; Host-cell Interactions; Receptors; Viral Replication; Virus Entry
ID Code:112823
Deposited On:05 Jun 2018 09:44
Last Modified:05 Jun 2018 09:44

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