Strong and weak hydrogen bonds in the protein-ligand interface

Panigrahi, Sunil K. ; Desiraju, Gautam R. (2007) Strong and weak hydrogen bonds in the protein-ligand interface Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 67 (1). pp. 128-141. ISSN 0887-3585

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The characteristics of NH···O, OH···O, and CH···O hydrogen bonds and other weak intermolecular interactions are analyzed in a large and diverse group of 251 protein-ligand complexes using a new computer program that was developed in-house for this purpose. The interactions examined in the present study are those which occur in the active sites, defined here as a sphere of 10 Å radius around the ligand. Notably, NH···O and OH···O bonds tend towards linearity. Multifurcated interactions are especially common, especially multifurcated acceptors, and the average degree of furcation is 2.6 hydrogen bonds per furcated acceptor. A significant aspect of this study is that we have been able to assess the reliability of hydrogen bond geometry as a function of crystallographic resolution. Thresholds of 2.3 and 2.0 Å are established for strong and weak hydrogen bonds, below which hydrogen bond geometries may be safely considered for detailed analysis. Interactions involving water as donor or acceptor, and CH···O bonds with Gly and Tyr as donors are ubiquitous in the active site. A similar trend was observed in an external test set of 233 protein-ligand complexes belonging to the kinase family. Weaker interactions like XH···∏ (X = C, N, O) and those involving halogen atoms as electrophiles or nucleophiles have also been studied. We conclude that the strong and weak hydrogen bonds are ubiquitous in protein-ligand recognition, and that with suitable computational tools very large numbers of strong and weak intermolecular interactions in the ligand-protein interface may be analyzed reliably. Results confirm earlier trends reported previously by us but the extended nature of the present data set mean that the observed trends are more reliable.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to John Wiley and Sons.
Keywords:Hydrogen Bond; Protein Data Bank; Force Field; Water; Interaction
ID Code:10761
Deposited On:09 Nov 2010 04:58
Last Modified:16 May 2016 20:18

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