Identification of novel class of falcipain-2 inhibitors as potential antimalarial agents

Chakka, Sai Kumar ; Kalamuddin, Mohammad ; Sundararaman, Srividhya ; Wei, Lianhu ; Mundra, Sourabh ; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan ; Malhotra, Pawan ; Mohmmed, Asif ; Kotra, Lakshmi P. (2015) Identification of novel class of falcipain-2 inhibitors as potential antimalarial agents Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 23 (9). pp. 2221-2240. ISSN 0968-0896

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Falcipain-2 is a papain family cysteine protease and an emerging antimalarial drug target. A pseudo-tripeptide scaffold I was designed using in silico screening tools and the three dimensional structures of falcipain-2, falcipain-3, and papain. This scaffold was investigated at four positions, T1, T2, T3, and T3′, with various targeted substitutions to understand the structure–activity relationships. Inhibitor synthesis was accomplished by first obtaining the appropriate dipeptide precursors with common structural components. The pyrrolidine moiety introduced interesting rotamers in a number of synthesized molecules, which was confirmed using high-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy. Among the synthesized compounds, 61, 62, and 66 inhibited falcipain-2 activity with inhibition constants (Ki) of 1.8 ± 1.1, 0.2 ± 0.1 and 7.0 ± 2.3 μM, respectively. A group of molecules with a pyrrolidine moiety at the T2 position (68, 70, 71, 72, and 73) also potently inhibited falcipain-2 activity (Ki = 0.4 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.5, 3.3 ± 1.1, 7.5 ± 1.9, and 4.6 ± 0.7 μM, respectively). Overall, compound 74 exhibited potent anti-parasitic activity (IC50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 μM), corresponding with its inhibitory activity against falcipain-2, with a Ki of 1.1 ± 0.1 μM. Compounds 62 and 67 inhibited the growth of the drug resistant parasite Dd2 with better efficacy, and compound 74 exhibited a 7- to 12-fold higher potency against Dd2 and MCamp isolates, than the laboratory strain (3D7). These data suggest that this novel series of compounds should be further investigated as potential antimalarial agents.

Item Type:Article
Source:Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.
Keywords:Malaria; Cysteine Proteases; Docking; Structure–Activity Relationship; Falcipain-2 Inhibitors; Anti-Parasitic Agents; Antimalarial Agents
ID Code:103099
Deposited On:01 Feb 2018 17:26
Last Modified:01 Feb 2018 17:26

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