Quadruplex-coupled kinetics distinguishes ligand binding between G4 DNA motifs

Halder, Kangkan ; Chowdhury, Shantanu (2007) Quadruplex-coupled kinetics distinguishes ligand binding between G4 DNA motifs Biochemistry, 46 (51). pp. 14762-14770. ISSN 0006-2960

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Official URL: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bi701590z?jour...

Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi701590z


G-quadruplex (or G4 DNA) specific ligands are important potential anticancer molecules as telomerase inhibitors. On the other hand, emerging evidence implicates G4 DNA in regulation of several oncogenes making telomerase inhibitors amenable to undesired effects (Borman, S. (2007) Chem. Eng. News 85 (22), 12−17). Therefore molecules which can discriminate between G4 DNA are of interest, both as telomerase inhibitors and for selective intervention of gene expression. Design of selective molecules requires resolution of the coupled equilibria between intramolecular quadruplex-formation and bimolecular ligand-binding. Several previous studies have reported G4−ligand binding kinetics, however the primary equilibrium of intramolecular G4 DNA folding/unfolding was not considered. Here, we quantitatively assess the linked equilibrium in G4−ligand complexes using a novel real time surface plasmon resonance-based technique. Kinetic constants for G4 folding/unfolding and ligand binding were simultaneously determined, for the first time, from a single reaction by resolving the coupled equilibrium. We demonstrate the coupled model by showing that affinity of TMPyP4 (a well-established anticancer telomerase inhibitor) for the human telomere quadruplex is only 3-fold more than the c-MYC promoter G4, which is known to repress c-MYC. This provides quantitative rationale to poor selectivity of TMPyP4 in recently observed cell-based assays. In the light of recent advances indicating G4's regulatory potential in several important genes, quantitative evaluation of selectivity vis-a-vis affinity as presented here will augment design and preliminary screening of new molecules.

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